Long Telomeres May Be Good For Heart Disease, Bad For Cancer Risk

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Philip C. Haycock, PhD MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit University of Bristol Bristol, England

Dr. Philip Haycock

Philip C. Haycock, PhD
MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit
University of Bristol
Bristol, England

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The direction and causal nature of the association of telomere length with risk of cancer and other diseases is uncertain. In a Mendelian randomization study of 83 non-communicable diseases, including 420,081 cases and 1,093,105 controls, we found that longer telomeres were associated with increased risk for several cancers but reduced risk for some other diseases, including cardiovascular diseases.

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Testosterone Therapy Improves Bone Mineral Density In Men With Low T

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Tony M. Keaveny, Ph.D. Professor, Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Bioengineering; Co-Director, Berkeley BioMechanics Laboratory University of California Berkeley, CA 94720-1740

Dr. Tony Keaveny

Tony M. Keaveny, Ph.D.
Professor, Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Bioengineering;
Co-Director, Berkeley BioMechanics Laboratory
University of California
Berkeley, CA 94720-1740

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: As men age, they experience decreased serum testosterone concentrations, decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and increased risk of fracture. While prior studies have been performed to determine the effect of testosterone treatment on bone in older men, for various reasons those studies have been inconclusive.

The goal of this study was to overcome past limitations in study design and determine if testosterone treatment — versus a placebo — in older men with low testosterone would improve the bone. Specifically, we used 3D quantitative CT scanning to measure changes in BMD and engineering “finite element analysis” to measure changes in the estimated bone strength, both at the spine and hip. The study was performed on over 200 older men (> age 65) who had confirmed low levels of serum testosterone.

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Antidepressants Have Variable Effects On Symptom Clusters

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Adam Chekroud PhD Candidate Human Neuroscience Lab

Adam Chekroud

Adam Chekroud
PhD Candidate
Human Neuroscience Lab
Department of Psychology
Yale University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: We know that depression includes a wide range of symptoms, from low mood and feeling worthless, to problems sleeping, slowed thinking, and suicidal ideation.

We wanted to know whether antidepressants work well in treating all of these symptoms, or whether they are primarily effective on certain kinds of symptoms.

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Testosterone Improves Anemia and Bone Strength, Worsens Coronary Plaque and Has No Effect on Memory

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Ronald S. Swerdloff, MD Chief of the Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine and Director of a World Health Organization Collaborative Center in Reproduction a Mellon Foundation Center for Contraceptive Development and a NIH Contraceptive Clinical Trial Center Director of the Harbor-UCLA Reproductive Program LA BioMed Lead Researcher David Geffen School of Medicine UCLA Health

Dr. Ronald Swerdloff

Ronald S. Swerdloff, MD
Chief of the Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine and
Director of a World Health Organization Collaborative Center in Reproduction
a Mellon Foundation Center for Contraceptive Development and a
NIH Contraceptive Clinical Trial Center
Director of the Harbor-UCLA Reproductive Program
LA BioMed Lead Researcher
David Geffen School of Medicine
UCLA Health

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: While we have long known that testosterone levels decrease as men age, very little was known about the effects of testosterone treatment in older men with low testosterone until last year.

Our team of researchers from LA BioMed and 12 other medical centers in the U.S., in partnership with the National Institute on Aging, conducted a coordinated group of seven trials known as The Testosterone Trials (TTrials). We studied the effects of testosterone treatment for one year as compared to placebo for men 65 and older with low testosterone. The TTrials are now the largest trials to examine the efficacy of testosterone treatment in men 65 and older whose testosterone levels are low due seemingly to age alone.

The first published research from the TTrials last year reported on some of the benefits to testosterone treatment. We have now published four additional studies in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) and JAMA Internal Medicine that found additional benefits and one potential drawback.

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Self-Guided Internet Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Shows Promise For Depression

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Eirini Karyotaki, MSc

Department of Clinical Psychology and EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Amsterdam, the Netherlands

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Depression is broadly acknowledged as a major health issue associated with a great risk of mortality and morbidity. Nevertheless, help-seeking rates are low among individuals with depression. Some of the barriers that impede help seeking are the limited availability of trained clinicians, the fear of stigmatisation and the cost of treatment. Self-guided Internet based Cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) has the potential to overcome many of these treatment barriers. However, recent randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have produced mixed evidence regarding the effects of self-guided iCBT in treating adults with depressive symptoms.

To gain more insight in the effectiveness of self-guided iCBT, an Individual Participant Data meta-analysis was performed. 3876 individual participant data across 13 RCTs were collected and analysed.

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Testosterone Replacement Did Not Increase Cardiovascular Risk In Androgen-Deficient Men

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr-Cheetham-Craig.jpg

Dr. Craig Cheetham

T. Craig Cheetham, PharmD, MS
Southern California Permanente Medical Group
Department of Research & Evaluation
Pasadena, CA 91101

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Concerns have been raised about the cardiovascular safety of testosterone replacement therapy. Patient selection criteria may have been a factor in the findings from studies reporting an increased cardiovascular risk with testosterone replacement therapy. Many men who were receiving testosterone replacement therapy don’t fall into the categories of ‘frail elderly’ or ‘high cardiovascular risk’. We therefore studied testosterone replacement therapy in a population of androgen deficient men within Kaiser Permanente Northern and Southern California. Continue reading

State Same-Sex Marriage Policies Associated With Reduced Adolescent Suicide Attempts

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Julia R.G. Raifman, ScD

Post-doctoral fellow
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents between the ages of 15 and 24 years old in the United States. Gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents have elevated rates of suicide attempts. In our study, we found that 29% of gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents reported attempting suicide in the past year relative to 6% of heterosexual adolescents.

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Prostate Cancer: Genetic Biomarker Predicts Response To Androgen Deprivation Therapy

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Neeraj Agarwal, MD Associate Professor, Division of Oncology, Department of Medicine University of Utah School of Medicine

Dr. Neeraj Agarwal

Neeraj Agarwal, MD
Associate Professor, Division of Oncology, Department of Medicine
University of Utah School of Medicine

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Biomarkers predicting response to cancer therapy help guide physicians personalize medicine. Significant advances have been made in the development of therapeutic biomarkers in various malignancies, but not in prostate cancer. Dr. Nima Sharifi’s group at the Cleveland Clinic recently discovered that a germline inherited polymorphic variant (1245A→C) in the HSD3B1 gene correlates with shorter duration of response to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in hormone sensitive prostate cancer (HSPC). HSD3B1 gene encodes the enzyme 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 (3βHSD1), which catalyzes adrenal androgen precursors into dihydrotestosterone, the most potent androgen.

The authors found that the variant allele of HSD3B1 led to decreased progression-free survival in a dose-dependent manner in post-prostatectomy biochemical recurrence and metastatic HSPC (mHSPC). These results needed external validation before application in the clinic. In our study, we sought to provide the first independent validation of these results in patients with mHSPC.

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Long Term Fampridine (AMPYRA) Improves Gait Function in Multiple Sclerosis

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Linard Filli, PhD Gait Research Lab Department of Neurology University Hospital Zurich Zürich

Dr. Linard Filli

Linard Filli, PhD
Gait Research Lab
Department of Neurology
University Hospital Zurich
Zürich

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Gait dysfunction is common in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and is perceived as the most restricting of symptoms. Fampridine (4-aminopyridine, dalfampridine), a blocker of voltage-gated potassium channels, is currently the only approved medication for the symptomatic treatment of walking disorders in patients in both the early and late phases of  multiple sclerosis.

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Tool Can Help Avoid Overtesting in Evaluation of Chest Pain

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

James E. Udelson, MD Chief, Division of Cardiology Director, Nuclear Cardiology Laboratory Professor, Tufts University School of Medicine

Dr. James Udelson

James E. Udelson, MD
Chief, Division of Cardiology
Director, Nuclear Cardiology Laboratory
Professor, Tufts University School of Medicine  

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?
Response: There are millions of stress tests done every year in the United States and many of them are normal,” said James Udelson, MD, Chief of the Division of Cardiology at Tufts Medical Center and the senior investigator on the study. “We thought that if we could predict the outcome of these tests by using information we already had from the patient before the test, we could potentially save the health care system money and save our patients time and worry.”   We were able to get a strong prediction of the possibility of having entirely normal testing and no clinical events such as a heart attack, by developing a risk prediction tool using ten clinical variables that are commonly available to a physician during an evaluation”

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Plastic Surgeons Define Ideal Female Lip Dimensions

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Brian J. F. Wong, MD, PhD Division of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Department of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic Department of Biomedical Engineering University of California, Irvine

Dr. Brian Wong

Brian J. F. Wong, MD, PhD
Division of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Department of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery
Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic
Department of Biomedical Engineering
University of California, Irvine

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Research in facial attractiveness is difficult because of the inherent subjectivity of rating. Most people can look at a face and instinctively tell you whether that face is attractive or not, by subconsciously picking up on biologic cues like fertility, coloration, and proportions.

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Paternal Depression Linked To Not Being in Relationship With Mother

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Lisa Underwood, PhD
Research Fellow| Centre for Longitudinal Research
Growing Up in New Zealand | Who are Today’s Dads?
School of Population Health, Faculty of Medical & Health Sciences
University of Auckland  Auckland

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: This study is part of the contemporary, longitudinal study Growing Up in New Zealand, which is tracking the development of more than 6000 children born in 2009 and 2010.

In previous reports we investigated antenatal and postnatal depression symptoms among the mothers of our cohort children. In this study we looked at the partners of those mothers to explore whether men and women have different risks for depression in each perinatal period.

Our main findings were that expectant fathers were at risk if they felt stressed or were in poor health. Elevated depression symptoms following their child’s birth, were also linked to social and relationship problems.

The strongest predictor of postnatal paternal depression was no longer being in a relationship with the child’s mother.

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